Luke Chapter 22
From The Open Bible Project
22:1 Now the feast of unleavened bread, which is called the Passover, drew near.
- (1) Christ is taken upon the day of the Passover rather by the providence of his Father, than by the will of men.
22:2 The chief priests and the scribes sought how they might put him to death, for they feared the people.
22:3 Satan entered into Judas, who was surnamed Iscariot, who was numbered with the twelve.
- (2) God by his wonderful providence causes him to be the minister of our salvation who was the author of our destruction.
22:4 He went away, and talked with the chief priests and captains about how he might deliver him to them.
- (a) Those that had the charge of keeping the temple, who were not from among the priests and bishops, as is shown below in (Luke 22:52).
22:5 They were glad, and agreed to give him money.
22:6 He consented, and sought an opportunity to deliver him to them in the absence of the multitude.
- (b) Without tumult, doing it without the knowledge of the people who used to follow him: and therefore they indeed waited patiently until they knew he was alone in the garden.
22:7 The day of unleavened bread came, on which the Passover must be sacrificed.
- (3) Christ teaches his disciples by an obvious miracle that although he is going to be crucified, yet nothing is hidden from him, and therefore that he is going willingly to death.
- (c) By the order appointed by the law.
22:8 He sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat."
- (d) The lamb which was the symbol of the passover: And this is said using the figure of speech metonymy, which is often used when talking about the sacraments.
22:9 They said to him, "Where do you want us to prepare?"
22:10 He said to them, "Behold, when you have entered into the city, a man carrying a pitcher of water will meet you. Follow him into the house which he enters.
22:11 Tell the master of the house, 'The Teacher says to you, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"'
22:12 He will show you a large, furnished upper room. Make preparations there."
22:13 They went, found things as he had told them, and they prepared the Passover.
22:14 When the hour had come, he sat down with the twelve apostles.
- (4) Christ, having ended the passover according to the order of the law, forewarns them that this will be his last banquet with them in terms of this earthly life.
- (e) The evening and twilight, at which time this supper was to be kept.
22:15 He said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer,
- (f) I am put to death.
22:16 for I tell you, I will no longer by any means eat of it until it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God."
22:17 He received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, "Take this, and share it among yourselves,
22:18 for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until the Kingdom of God comes."
22:19 He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me."
- (5) Christ establishes his new covenant and his communication with us by new symbols.
22:20 Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you.
- (g) Here is a double use of metonymy: for first, the vessel is taken for that which is contained in the vessel, as the cup is spoken of for the wine which is within the cup. Second, the wine is called the covenant or testament, whereas in reality it is but the sign of the testament, or rather of the blood of Christ by which the testament was made: neither is it a vain sign, although it is not the same as the thing that it represents.
- (h) This word "the" shows the excellency of the testament, and corresponds to (Jeremiah 31:31) where the new testament is promised.
22:21 But behold, the hand of him who betrays me is with me on the table.
- (6) Christ shows again that he goes willingly to die, although he is not ignorant of Judas’ treason.
- (i) That is, his practice; the Hebrews used to speak in this way, as in (2 Samuel 14:19): "Is not the hand of Joab with thee in all this?"
22:22 The Son of Man indeed goes, as it has been determined, but woe to that man through whom he is betrayed!"
- (7) Although the decree of God’s providence necessarily comes to pass, yet it does not excuse the fault of those who bring it to pass.
22:23 They began to question among themselves, which of them it was who would do this thing.
22:24 There arose also a contention among them, which of them was considered to be greatest.
- (8) The pastors are not called to rule but to serve.
22:25 He said to them, "The kings of the nations lord it over them, and those who have authority over them are called 'benefactors.'
- (8) The pastors are not called to rule but to serve.
22:26 But not so with you. But one who is the greater among you, let him become as the younger, and one who is governing, as one who serves.
22:27 For who is greater, one who sits at the table, or one who serves? Isn't it he who sits at the table? But I am in the midst of you as one who serves.
22:28 But you are those who have continued with me in my trials.
- (9) Those who are partakers of the affliction of Christ will also be partakers of his kingdom.
22:29 I confer on you a kingdom, even as my Father conferred on me,
22:30 that you may eat and drink at my table in my Kingdom. You will sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel."
22:31 The Lord said, "Simon, Simon, behold, Satan asked to have you, that he might sift you as wheat,
- (10) We must always think about the ambush that Satan lays for us.
- (l) To toss you and scatter you, and also to cast you out.
22:32 but I prayed for you, that your faith wouldn't fail. You, when once you have turned again, establish your  brothers [See Luke Footnotes 56]."
- (11) It is through the prayers of Christ that the elect never utterly fall away from the faith: and because of this they should encourage one another on.
22:33 He said to him, "Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death!"
- (12) In setting before us the grievous example of Peter, Christ shows that faith differs much from a vain security.
22:34 He said, "I tell you, Peter, the rooster will by no means crow today until you deny that you know me three times."
22:35 He said to them, "When I sent you out without purse, and wallet, and shoes, did you lack anything?" They said, "Nothing."
22:36 Then he said to them, "But now, whoever has a purse, let him take it, and likewise a wallet. Whoever has none, let him sell his cloak, and buy a sword.
- (m) He says all this using an allegory, as if he said, "O my friends and fellow soldiers, you have lived until now in relative peace: but now there is at hand a most severe battle to be fought, and you must therefore lay all other things aside and think about dressing yourselves in armour." And what this armour is, is shown by his own example, when he prayed afterward in the garden and reproved Peter for striking with the sword.
22:37 For I tell you that this which is written must still be fulfilled in me: 'He was counted with transgressors.' For that which concerns me has an end."
22:38 They said, "Lord, behold, here are two swords." He said to them, "That is enough."
22:39 He came out, and went, as his custom was, to the Mount of Olives. His disciples also followed him.
22:40 When he was at the place, he said to them, "Pray that you don't enter into temptation."
- (13) Christ has made death acceptable unto us by overcoming for our sake all the horrors of death, which had the curse of God accompanying them.
22:41 He was withdrawn from them about a stone's throw, and he knelt down and prayed,
- (14) Prayers are a sure help against the most perilous assaults of our enemies.
22:42 saying, "Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done."
22:43 An angel from heaven appeared to him, strengthening him.
22:44 Being in agony he prayed more earnestly. His sweat became like great drops of blood falling down on the ground.
- (n) This agony shows that Christ struggled hard and was in great distress: for Christ struggled hard not only with the fears of death as other men do (for in this regard many martyrs might seem more constant then Christ), but also with the fearful judgment of his angry Father, which is the most fearful thing in the world: and this was because he took the burden of all our sins upon himself.
- (o) These do not only show that Christ was true man, but also other things which the godly have to consider of, in which the secret of the redemption of all mankind is contained in the Son of God when he debased himself to the state of a servant: such things as these no man can sufficiently declare.
22:45 When he rose up from his prayer, he came to the disciples, and found them sleeping because of grief,
- (15) Men are utterly sluggish, even in their greatest dangers.
22:46 and said to them, "Why do you sleep? Rise and pray that you may not enter into temptation."
22:47 While he was still speaking, behold, a multitude, and he who was called Judas, one of the twelve, was leading them. He came near to Jesus to kiss him.
- (16) Christ is willingly betrayed and taken so that by his obedience he might deliver us who were guilty of betraying God’s glory.
22:48 But Jesus said to him, "Judas, do you betray the Son of Man with a kiss?"
22:49 When those who were around him saw what was about to happen, they said to him, "Lord, shall we strike with the sword?"
- (17) That zeal which carries us out of the bounds of our God-given position does not please Christ.
22:50 A certain one of them struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear.
22:51 But Jesus answered, "Let me at least do this"--and he touched his ear, and healed him.
22:52 Jesus said to the chief priests, captains of the temple, and elders, who had come against him, "Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs?
- (18) Even the very fear of those who took Christ partly proves their evil conscience, and partly also that all these things were done by God’s providence.
22:53 When I was with you in the temple daily, you didn't stretch out your hands against me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness."
- (p) The power that was given to darkness to oppress the light for a time.
22:54 They seized him, and led him away, and brought him into the high priest's house. But Peter followed from a distance.
- (19) We have to behold in Peter an example both of the fragility of man’s nature, and the singular goodness of God towards his elect.
22:55 When they had kindled a fire in the middle of the courtyard, and had sat down together, Peter sat among them.
22:56 A certain servant girl saw him as he sat in the light, and looking intently at him, said, "This man also was with him."
22:57 He denied Jesus, saying, "Woman, I don't know him."
22:58 After a little while someone else saw him, and said, "You also are one of them!" But Peter answered, "Man, I am not!"
22:59 After about one hour passed, another confidently affirmed, saying, "Truly this man also was with him, for he is a Galilean!"
22:60 But Peter said, "Man, I don't know what you are talking about!" Immediately, while he was still speaking, a rooster crowed.
22:61 The Lord turned, and looked at Peter. Then Peter remembered the Lord's word, how he said to him, "Before the rooster crows you will deny me three times."
22:62 He went out, and wept bitterly.
22:63 The men who held Jesus mocked him and beat him.
- (20) Christ bore the shame that was due for our sins.
22:64 Having blindfolded him, they struck him on the face and asked him, "Prophesy! Who is the one who struck you?"
22:65 They spoke many other things against him, insulting him.
22:66 As soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together, both chief priests and scribes, and they led him away into their council, saying,
- (21) Christ is wrongly condemned of blasphemy before the high priest’s judgment seat in order that we might be acquitted before God from the blasphemy which we deserved.
22:67 "If you are the Christ, tell us." But he said to them, "If I tell you, you won't believe,
22:68 and if I ask, you will in no way answer me or let me go.
22:69 From now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God."
22:70 They all said, "Are you then the Son of God?" He said to them, "You say it, because I am."
22:71 They said, "Why do we need any more witness? For we ourselves have heard from his own mouth!"